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The astronomers Thomas Digges and Thomas Harriot made important contributions; William Gilbert published his seminal study of magnetism, De Magnete, in Substantial advancements were made in the fields of cartography and surveying. The eccentric but influential John Dee also merits mention. Much of this scientific and technological progress related to the practical skill of navigation.

English achievements in exploration were noteworthy in the Elizabethan era. Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe between and , and Martin Frobisher explored the Arctic. The first attempt at English settlement of the eastern seaboard of North America occurred in this era—the abortive colony at Roanoke Island in While Elizabethan England is not thought of as an age of technological innovation, some progress did occur.

In Guilliam Boonen came from the Netherlands to be Queen Elizabeth's first coach-builder —thus introducing the new European invention of the spring-suspension coach to England, as a replacement for the litters and carts of an earlier transportation mode. Coaches quickly became as fashionable as sports cars in a later century; social critics, especially Puritan commentators, noted the "diverse great ladies" who rode "up and down the countryside" in their new coaches. Historians since the s have explored many facets of the social history, covering every class of the population.

Although home to only a small part of the population the Tudor municipalities were overcrowded and unhygienic. Most towns were unpaved with poor public sanitation. There were no sewers or drains, and rubbish was simply abandoned in the street. Animals such as rats thrived in these conditions. In larger towns and cities, such as London, common diseases arising from lack of sanitation included smallpox , measles , malaria , typhus , diphtheria , Scarlet fever , and chickenpox. Outbreaks of the Black Death pandemic occurred in , , , , and The reason for the speedy spread of the disease was the increase of rats infected by fleas carrying the disease.

Child mortality was low in comparison with earlier and later periods, at about or fewer deaths per babies. The great majority were tenant farmers who lived in small villages. Their homes were, as in earlier centuries, thatched huts with one or two rooms, although later on during this period, roofs were also tiled. Furniture was basic, with stools being commonplace rather than chairs.

The daub was usually then painted with limewash , making it white, and the wood was painted with black tar to prevent rotting, but not in Tudor times; the Victorians did this afterwards. The bricks were handmade and thinner than modern bricks. The wooden beams were cut by hand, which makes telling the difference between Tudor houses and Tudor-style houses easy, as the original beams are not straight.

The upper floors of Tudor houses were often larger than the ground floors, which would create an overhang or jetty. This would create more floor-surface above while also keeping maximum street width. During the Tudor period, the use of glass when building houses was first used, and became widespread.

It was very expensive and difficult to make, so the panes were made small and held together with a lead lattice, in casement windows. People who could not afford glass often used polished horn, cloth or paper. Tudor chimneys were tall, thin, and often decorated with symmetrical patterns of molded or cut brick. Early Tudor houses, and the homes of poorer people, did not have chimneys.

The smoke in these cases would be let out through a simple hole in the roof. Mansions had many chimneys for the many fireplaces required to keep the vast rooms warm. These fires were also the only way of cooking food. Wealthy Tudor homes needed many rooms, where a large number of guests and servants could be accommodated, fed and entertained.

Wealth was demonstrated by the extensive use of glass. Windows became the main feature of Tudor mansions, and were often a fashion statement. Mansions were often designed to a symmetrical plan; "E" and "H" shapes were popular. About one-third of the population lived in poverty, with the wealthy expected to give alms to assist the impotent poor. Those who left their parishes in order to locate work were termed vagabonds and could be subjected to punishments, including whipping and putting at the stocks. The idea of the workhouse for the able-bodied poor was first suggested in There was an unprecedented expansion of education in the Tudor period.

Until then, few children went to school. Boys were allowed to go to school and began at the age of 4, they then moved to grammar school when they were 7 years old.

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Girls were either kept at home by their parents to help with housework or sent out to work to bring money in for the family. They were not sent to school. Boys were educated for work and the girls for marriage and running a household so when they married they could look after the house and children. Many Tudor towns and villages had a parish school where the local vicar taught boys to read and write. Brothers could teach their sisters these skills. At school, pupils were taught English, Latin, Greek, catechism and arithmetic. The pupils practised writing in ink by copying the alphabet and the Lord's Prayer.

There were few books, so pupils read from hornbooks instead. These wooden boards had the alphabet, prayers or other writings pinned to them and were covered with a thin layer of transparent cow's horn. There were two types of school in Tudor times: petty school was where young boys were taught to read and write; grammar school was where abler boys were taught English and Latin. The school day started at am in winter and am in summer and finished about pm.

Petty schools had shorter hours, mostly to allow poorer boys the opportunity to work as well. Schools were harsh and teachers were very strict, often beating pupils who misbehaved. Education would begin at home, where children were taught the basic etiquette of proper manners and respecting others. Only the most wealthy people allowed their daughters to be taught, and only at home.

During this time, endowed schooling became available. This meant that even boys of very poor families were able to attend school if they were not needed to work at home, but only in a few localities were funds available to provide support as well as the necessary education scholarship. Boys from wealthy families were taught at home by a private tutor. He refounded many former monastic schools—they are known as "King's schools" and are found all over England. During the reign of Edward VI many free grammar schools were set up to take in non-fee paying students.

There were two universities in Tudor England: Oxford and Cambridge. Some boys went to university at the age of about England's food supply was plentiful throughout most of the reign; there were no famines. Bad harvests caused distress, but they were usually localized. The most widespread came in —57 and — The poor consumed a diet largely of bread, cheese, milk, and beer, with small portions of meat, fish and vegetables, and occasionally some fruit. Potatoes were just arriving at the end of the period, and became increasingly important.

The typical poor farmer sold his best products on the market, keeping the cheap food for the family. Stale bread could be used to make bread puddings, and bread crumbs served to thicken soups, stews, and sauces. The holiday goose was a special treat. Many rural folk and some townspeople tended a small garden which produced vegetables such as asparagus, cucumbers, spinach, lettuce, beans, cabbage, carrots, leeks, and peas, as well as medicinal and flavoring herbs. Some grew their own apricots, grapes, berries, apples, pears, plums, currants, and cherries.

Families without a garden could trade with their neighbors to obtain vegetables and fruits at low cost. England was exposed to new foods such as the potato imported from South America , and developed new tastes during the era. The more prosperous enjoyed a wide variety of food and drink, including exotic new drinks such as tea, coffee, and chocolate. French and Italian chefs appeared in the country houses and palaces bringing new standards of food preparation and taste.

For example, the English developed a taste for acidic foods—such as oranges for the upper class—and started to use vinegar heavily. The gentry paid increasing attention to their gardens, with new fruits, vegetables and herbs; pasta, pastries, and dried mustard balls first appeared on the table. The apricot was a special treat at fancy banquets. Roast beef remained a staple for those who could afford it. The rest ate a great deal of bread and fish. Every class had a taste for beer and rum.

At the rich end of the scale the manor houses and palaces were awash with large, elaborately prepared meals, usually for many people and often accompanied by entertainment. The upper classes often celebrated religious festivals, weddings, alliances and the whims of the king or queen.

Feasts were commonly used to commemorate the "procession" of the crowned heads of state in the summer months, when the king or queen would travel through a circuit of other nobles' lands both to avoid the plague season of London, and alleviate the royal coffers, often drained through the winter to provide for the needs of the royal family and court. This would include a few days or even a week of feasting in each noble's home, who depending on his or her production and display of fashion, generosity and entertainment, could have his way made in court and elevate his or her status for months or even years.

Special courses after a feast or dinner which often involved a special room or outdoor gazebo sometimes known as a folly with a central table set with dainties of "medicinal" value to help with digestion. These would include wafers, comfits of sugar-spun anise or other spices, jellies and marmalades a firmer variety than we are used to, these would be more similar to our gelatin jigglers , candied fruits, spiced nuts and other such niceties.

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These would be eaten while standing and drinking warm, spiced wines known as hypocras or other drinks known to aid in digestion. One must remember that sugar in the Middle Ages or Early Modern Period was often considered medicinal, and used heavily in such things.

This was not a course of pleasure, though it could be as everything was a treat, but one of healthful eating and abetting the digestive capabilities of the body. It also, of course, allowed those standing to show off their gorgeous new clothes and the holders of the dinner and banquet to show off the wealth of their estate, what with having a special room just for banqueting. While the Tudor era presents an abundance of material on the women of the nobility—especially royal wives and queens—historians have recovered scant documentation about the average lives of women.

Dramatic Effects: The Impact of Theater on 19th-Century U.S. Culture and Society

There has, however, been extensive statistical analysis of demographic and population data which includes women, especially in their childbearing roles. England had more well-educated upper class women than was common anywhere in Europe. The Queen's marital status was a major political and diplomatic topic. It also entered into the popular culture.

Elizabeth's unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity. In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman. In contrast to her father's emphasis on masculinity and physical prowess, Elizabeth emphasized the maternalism theme, saying often that she was married to her kingdom and subjects.


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She explained "I keep the good will of all my husbands — my good people — for if they did not rest assured of some special love towards them, they would not readily yield me such good obedience," [68] and promised in they would never have a more natural mother than she. Over ninety percent of English women and adults, in general entered marriage at the end of the s and beginning of the s, at an average age of about 25—26 years for the bride and 27—28 years for the groom, with the most common ages being for grooms and 23 for brides. With William Shakespeare at his peak, as well as Christopher Marlowe and many other playwrights, actors and theatres constantly busy, the high culture of the Elizabethan Renaissance was best expressed in its theatre.

Historical topics were especially popular, not to mention the usual comedies and tragedies. Travelling musicians were in great demand at Court, in churches, at country houses, and at local festivals. The composers were commissioned by church and Court, and deployed two main styles, madrigal and ayre. It became the fashion in the late 19th century to collect and sing the old songs. Yet within this general trend, a native school of painting was developing. In Elizabeth's reign, Nicholas Hilliard , the Queen's "limner and goldsmith," is the most widely recognized figure in this native development; but George Gower has begun to attract greater notice and appreciation as knowledge of him and his art and career has improved.

Watching plays became very popular during the Tudor period.


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Most towns sponsored plays enacted in town squares followed by the actors using the courtyards of taverns or inns referred to as inn-yards followed by the first theatres great open-air amphitheatres and then the introduction of indoor theatres called playhouses. This popularity was helped by the rise of great playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe using London theatres such as the Globe Theatre. By , 15, people a week were watching plays in London. It was during Elizabeth's reign that the first real theatres were built in England.

Before theatres were built, actors travelled from town to town and performed in the streets or outside inns. Miracle plays were local re-enactments of stories from the Bible. They derived from the old custom of mystery plays , in which stories and fables were enacted to teach lessons or educate about life in general. They influenced Shakespeare. Festivals were popular seasonal entertainments. There were many different types of Elizabethan sports and entertainment. Animal sports included bear and bull baiting , dog fighting and cock fighting.

The rich enjoyed tennis , fencing , and jousting. Hunting was strictly limited to the upper class. They favoured their packs of dogs and hounds trained to chase foxes, hares and boars. The rich also enjoyed hunting small game and birds with hawks, known as falconry. Jousting was an upscale, very expensive sport where warriors on horseback raced toward each other in full armor trying to use their lance to knock the other off his horse. It was a violent sport-- King Henry II of France was killed in a tournament in , as were many lesser men. King Henry VIII was a champion; he finally retired from the lists after a hard fall left him unconscious for hours.

Other sports included archery, bowling, hammer-throwing, quarter-staff contests, troco , quoits , skittles , wrestling and mob football. Dice was a popular activity in all social classes. Cards appeared in Spain and Italy about , but they probably came from Egypt. They began to spread throughout Europe and came into England around By the time of Elizabeth's reign, gambling was a common sport. Cards were not played only by the upper class. Many of the lower classes had access to playing cards. The card suits tended to change over time.

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The suits often changed from country to country. England probably followed the Latin version, initially using cards imported from Spain but later relying on more convenient supplies from France. Yet even before Elizabeth had begun to reign, the number of cards had been standardized to 52 cards per deck. Popular card games included Maw, One and Thirty, Bone-ace. These are all games for small group players. Ruff and Honors was a team game. During the Elizabethan era, people looked forward to holidays because opportunities for leisure were limited, with time away from hard work being restricted to periods after church on Sundays.

For the most part, leisure and festivities took place on a public church holy day. Every month had its own holiday, some of which are listed below:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Queen Elizabeth I c. Prehistoric Britain until c. Main article: English colonial empire. Also offered as English and through Film and Representation Studies.

African-American Drama African-American drama is a tradition that has unique themes and forms with sources in African ritual and language; gesture and folklore; the Southern Baptist church; the blues; and jazz. Students examine plays, read essays, view videos and listen to music to discover the qualities that make this drama a vital resource of African-American culture and an important social and political voice. Also offered as English and through African-American Studies. Collaboration Across the Arts The direction of this course is determined largely by the unique combination of students who participate.

Students form groups of two or three to work on a collaborative project of their own design reflecting their collective interests. For example, a pair of students may create a multimedia work that draws connections between image and sound. Students critique works in progress, study exemplary works, discuss relevant aesthetic issues, trace connections across media and consider strategies for collaborative work.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. Also offered as Art and Art History and Music Their topics change and will be announced each semester. Advanced Modern Dance An exploration of advanced modern technique and theory in a variety of styles of modern dance. The class emphasizes educating the body as an instrument for artistic expression as well as development of flexibility, strength, coordination and awareness of principles of motion.

The class will also work on choreography and composition exercises using the concepts of space, time, effort and shape. Stage Lighting An investigation of theatrical lighting equipment and its applied use in producing drama, concerts, and dance on the modern stage. The course includes a study of basic electricity, lighting instruments, computerized lighting control and design procedures.

Prerequisite: PCA Students are expected to work independently on the preparation of two feature-length screenplays. Workshop format emphasizes the revision and editing process. Characterization An intensive study of the acting process building on skills developed in PCA Acting Styles A concentrated study of three theatrical styles: Greek tragedy, Elizabethan drama and comedy of manners. The course includes reading and research on the theater and culture of each historical period, followed by an intensive exploration of their vocal and physical styles through guided improvisations, exercise and scene study.

This class surveys some of the important intellectual contributions to this inquiry — media theories and seminal studies. At the same time, it follows some of the most significant contemporary debates that reflect the symbiotic relationship between the media and our own culture. Advanced Public Speaking Intensive study of the principles and practices of researching, organizing, writing, delivering and criticizing persuasive speeches.

Students employ contemporary theories of persuasion to analyze a variety of rhetorical situations. Students construct persuasive speeches for different speaking situations in order to develop critical and practical skills. Group Performance This course focuses on the process of adapting and staging non-dramatic texts e. The class emphasizes the process of selecting, adapting, scripting and rehearsing texts for group performance.

Gender and Communication All of our communications have a gendered component, and all gender performances are, by definition, communicative. In this course, we explore some of the many contexts, media and modalities through which communication and gender intersect. We examine both how we perform gender and how we become gendered through the processes of social interaction.

Also offered through Peace Studies. Course material focuses on interpersonal communication, non-verbal communication, mass communication, intercultural communication and the relationship between gender and communication. In this course we focus on the performance of various poetic forms: traditional fixed forms, open verse, concrete poems, found poems and others. Argumentation and Debate Study of the nature and functions of argument: the classical and contemporary concepts of rationality, truth, knowledge and models of argument; and the evaluation of argument in formal and ordinary language situations.

Students participate in several argumentation and debate assignments to develop critical and practical skills. Prerequisites: PCA or English Also offered as English , and through European Studies. Native American Oral Traditions This course examines the oral literatures of Native Americans and the incorporation of these oral traditions into written texts. Native American oral traditions are examined using written texts, videos and live performances. Also offered through Native American Studies. Performance challenges associated with each play are also discussed. Prerequisites: English and one other level English course.

Also offered as English and through European Studies. Feature Writing. Students learn the basic techniques of literary journalism, a specific genre that combines best practices of journalistic reporting with creative writing. In the first part of the semester, the class will survey some of the best feature stories published English language literature — journals, magazines and anthologies. In the next step, the students will learn how to gradually develop their own compelling topics through brainstorming, research and interviewing. At the same time, the class will survey the basic writing techniques that help the author to organize, structure and present fact-based information in a creative manner.

American Public Address A study of American history through examination of the speeches of spokespersons for social, political, legal and religious institutions and movements. Drama by and About Women Using theoretical writings and dramatic scripts, this course asks what, if anything, is different about reading drama written by women about women. Although the foundations of this course are rooted in a variety of feminist perspectives, it focuses on a way of reading rather than on any one of a group of political stances. Prerequisite: PCA or permission. Interpersonal Communication This course examines the social situations in which people create and maintain interpersonal relationships, exploring the myriad social and cultural factors that impinge upon the success of these relationships.

Topics include identity, relationship formation, family, friendship, intimacy, gender and sexualities, relationships at school and work, conflict, and digitally mediated interpersonal communication. Cultural texts, speeches, manifestos, sit-ins, marches and songs drawn from each of these calls for change are examined and interpreted using a variety of rhetorical theories. Presidential Campaign Rhetoric This course examines the forms and functions of rhetoric within the context of presidential election campaigns. Students engage in a variety of formal and informal oral and written exercises related to the persuasive strategies that candidates, the media and independent organizations use to advance their political agendas.

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Directing This course provides the advanced student with practical skills and an understanding of directing methods, including intensive script analysis, concept development and articulation,. Rhetoric and Citizenship In this course students explore citizenship through the lens of rhetorical theory and history, study philosophical debates over citizenship, and debate the current state of citizenship in U.

While engaged in these theoretical discussions, students enact their own civic engagement by examining their communities of obligation, identifying concerns in their communities, and using rhetoric to address a community concern. Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde Students are exposed to theoretical writings, dramatic texts and performances that reflect the continuing experimentation in the theater since the s.

Students examine artistic reactions to a post-Darwinian and post-Freudian worldview and are exposed to the various methods by which playwrights and theater practitioners have grappled with finding new ways of articulating what it means to be human in an industrialized world. Performance Art Students read essays about the historical tradition of performance art and the relationship between performance art, theater, dance and the visual arts, and consider the work of contemporary performance artists such as Karen Finley, Spaulding Gray, Laurie Anderson, Rachel Rosenthal and Pina Bausch.

Students also learn about performance art by doing it -— by engaging in the process of creating and producing their own performance art pieces. Taboo Performances Taboo Performances: The Politics of Sex on Stage is a rigorous, academic study of the ways that we read sexual acts and bodies in performance. Course readings focus on dramatic literature, theory, and criticism. Students read plays which include taboo acts, engage with the criticism and theory of the dramatic literature, and frame the dialogue through performance and body theory. Also offered as Gender Studies Focus may be upon cultural coherence e.

Prerequisite: varies. At the same time, it reached a significant hegemonic position in the Western world measured both by hard military and economic as well as soft political philosophy, arts and architecture standards of power.


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