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The names of places, persons, and peoples were annotated and disambiguated, and they were then linked to authority files and gazetteers; this process of disambiguation allowed us to display the text of Thucydides and all the other data in our collections, such as monuments or other objects in Arachne, that include references to the same entities in a unified reading environment.

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The work of Thucydides is browsable in multiple different views. In the Reading view, the passages of the text are displayed with the named entities highlighted: different colors are used to distinguish between the classes of entities persons, geographical names, man-made landmarks, organizations ; on a side pane, those entities that are linked to a geographic location e.

Entities in history are not important per se except as they are involved in a series of human activities. At first glance, it would seem obvious that a work of historical prose dedicated to the war between the two superpowers of its times should mostly contain narrations of events and that consequently it should not be difficult to recognize and identify them in the flow of the text. The designers of Hellespont decided to proceed in the same direction and to thus also include passages of ancient texts within the data that are linked in the model.

For example, if we know that one object the walls of Athens and one actor e. Themistocles are involved in the same event the Athenians, following Themistocles' advice, rebuilt the city fortifications destroyed by the Persians , and if we identify a specific passage in a textual source Thucydides, Histories , 1. Then, by setting up a chronology of the annotated events either absolute or relative , it becomes possible to create a timeline that allows readers to access the related sources in the collection.

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Therefore, several readers in the history of scholarship have already undertaken the task of indexing and summarizing the text according to the most relevant content of each paragraph. These summaries, that are found in the printed editions and translations of Thucydides, can be adopted as a guide for event annotation. The portion of the text between Histories 1. This approach was adopted for a first stage of Hellespont; it was then implemented in the event view within the GapVis interface, where the content of the Pentecontaetia can be accessed from a timeline; each event is further described in its structural relations with other related episodes which is particularly useful for skirmishes or operations that are part of a larger campaign and in its internal articulation its actors, or its temporal and geographical frame [5].

The historical commentary of Hornblower was chosen as the main reference for the identification of the events. Different scholars may differ considerably even in their segmentation of a text, and the choice for one solution over the others might be arbitrary. Yet the main problem with this approach is often one of granularity. In such cases, readers are forced to summarize chapters and paragraphs using general labels, while the stages and the articulation of the facts remain difficult to capture.

Thus, for example chapter 1. In such cases, the reader that wants to isolate the stages of an event with greater accuracy is forced to look closely at the linguistic structure of each sentence. Consequently, instead of taking textual units like chapters or paragraphs as a basis for the annotation, we were forced to consider the linguistic articulation of the text itself. This task of isolating real-world events in natural language, however, is extremely challenging. An example from Thucydides taken from the aforementioned narration of the Athenian intervention in Ithome may help in illustrating the kind of pitfalls that we encountered:.

Yet it is immediately clear that the last one of them does not belong to the domain of history, but the verb mood characterizes the event as the unrealistic outcome of a counterfactual hypothesis, both in Greek and in the English translation. On the other hand, even the first verb, which may seem to those familiar with Greek history to point to the main fact that is referred to here the Athenians are summoned to the siege of Ithome , is not unproblematic. If we consider the sentence that precedes, which is reported in brackets at the beginning of the translation, we see that Thucydides is not reporting a new event, he's instead alluding for the second time to the same episode he narrated in the previous sentence; the main focus of the first quoted sentence is the cause that brought about the Athenian intervention, while the fact that they were called in is simply repeated from the preceding statement.

This distinction, which may seem trivial to the human reader and is most likely performed unconsciously by them, requires a subltler linguistic distinction between given and new information. The internal analysis of the kind that we would like to implement for our event view with the actors involved and temporal and geographical frames is also more complex than it may seem at first. Their identity cannot be guessed without considering the whole context [6]. Therefore, if we want to assess how many events we can identify in these sentences and what the named entities involved in them are, we must consider a rather large spectrum of linguistic phenomena, from part-of-speech tagging, to verbal modality, co-refence resolution, and syntactic structure.

A definition of the semantic role played by each argument must then be introduced in addition to the labels for syntactic function. Our task, thus, became that of providing a comprehensive linguistic annotation of all these phenomena, so that our annotated corpus may support an alternative, more data-driven analysis than the one based on summaries found in the scholarly literature. Although a thorough discussion of these questions would be out of the scope of our paper, we believe that the multi-layer treebank that we have created support the kind of analysis that we were aiming at see in particular Section 3 and figure 4.

As we have already said, treebanks are digital corpora that embed word-by-word annotation on linguistic phenomena, including at least part-of-speech tagging and syntax. For classical studies, a number of treebanks of Greek and Latin listed above have been recently made available to the public. All the texts are chunked into sentences and a complete morphological analysis including lemmatization of each word is provided [ Bamman et al. The set of relations between heads and dependents can thus be visualized as a dependency tree, with acyclic, directed edges connecting the words see Figure 3 below.

The annotation of morphology and syntax is provided for every word in each text, including for example particles and conjunctions, as well as for punctuation marks [7]. The morphological annotation and the type of dependency grammar adopted by Perseus are modeled on two layers the morphological and the so-called analytical layer of the Prague Dependency Treebank of Czech PDT [8]. At present, sentence- and word-tokenization of the Ancient Greek texts included in the Perseus Digital Library is fully automated, nonetheless no NLP-tool is available that provides reliable automatic tagging and syntactic parsing [9] ; therefore the work of annotation is entirely manual.

In spite of these limitations, the AGDT provides an excellent standard that supports the morphological and syntactic analysis of Greek. Taking advantage of this model has turned out to be the best practice for our own work. Our task was thus twofold. On the one hand, we used the format and the rules of the AGDT to annotate the syntax and morphology of the Pentecontaetia. As we have seen, the treatment of syntax in the AGDT follows the model of analytical annotation of surface syntax used by the Prague Dependency Treebank. This layer, called tectogrammatical , encodes many of those linguistic phenomena that we hoped to describe in the text of Thucydides [ Sgall et al.

Its adaptation to Greek proved to be a complex process, both in the definition of a set of guidelines for the different grammatical constructions and in the concrete work of textual annotation, which cannot be discussed in full here [10]. In what follows, we will limit ourselves to describing some basic concepts of tectogrammatical sentence representation. The overall meaning of the sentence is captured by the set of head-dependent relations and by a combination of other factors. In particular, a tectogrammatical tree still represents the structure of a sentence as a dependency tree, which is not different from what happens with the standard syntactic annotation of the AGDT compare the two trees of Figure 3.

His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia Moral Essays. They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion. Pro Lege Manilia. Pro Caecina. Pro Cluentio. Pro Rabirio Perduellionis Reo. Longinus: On the Sublime. Demetrius: On Style. Hamilton Demetrius Innes, Doreen C. Rhys Roberts, W. The subject of On the Sublime , attributed to an unidentifiable Longinus and probably composed in the first century CE, is greatness in writing.

On Style , attributed to an unidentifiable Demetrius and perhaps composed in the second century BCE, analyzes four literary styles. Alcibiades I and II.

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The Lovers. Isaeus c. He shares with Lysias pure Attic and lucidity of style, but his more aggressive and flexible presentation undoubtedly influenced Demosthenes. Of at least fifty attributed orations, there survive eleven on legacy cases and a large fragment dealing with a claim of citizenship. In The Learned Banqueters late-2nd century CE , Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

Letters to Friends, Volume I: Letters The verse is light in touch, with a distinct pictorial quality. Mozley, is now reissued with corrections by Christopher A. Greek literary education and Roman political reality are evident in the poetry of Statius c. His Silvae are thirty-two occasional poems. His masterpiece, the epic Thebaid , recounts the struggle for kingship between the two sons of Oedipus. To Demonicus. To Nicocles. Nicocles or the Cyprians. To Philip. Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive; these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases.

Nine letters, more on public than private matters, are also extant. De Constantia. De Ira. De Clementia. In Moral Essays , Seneca c. History of the Wars, Volume V: Books 7. Discourses, Books The Encheiridion. In Fishing , Oppian of Cilicia, who flourished in the latter half of the second century CE, discusses fish and gives angling instructions.

The Chase , on hunting, may be the work of a Syrian imitator. The poem is also called Pharsalia. Against Verres, Part 1; Part 2, Books On Having Many Friends. Virtue and Vice. Letter of Condolence to Apollonius. Advice About Keeping Well. Advice to Bride and Groom. The Dinner of the Seven Wise Men.

Herodas: Mimes. Sophron and Other Mime Fragments. Fictionalized faults are the focus of Characters by Theophrastus c. The Hellenistic poet Herodas wrote mimes in which everyday life is portrayed and character—as opposed to plot—depicted. Mimes by Sophron fifth century BCE and anonymous mime fragments also represent that genre. On the Creation. Allegorical Interpretation of Genesis 2 and 3.

In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought. On the Cherubim. The Sacrifices of Abel and Cain. The Worse Attacks the Better. On the Posterity and Exile of Cain.

On the Giants. On the Peace. Against the Sophists. Florus second century CE wrote, in brief pointed rhetorical style, a two-book summary of Roman history especially military in order to show the greatness and decline of Roman morals. Art of Love. Remedies for Love. Sea Fishing. His Ibis is an elegiac curse-poem. History of Rome, Volume V: Books History of Rome, Volume V: Books 21— This Loeb edition replaces the original by B.

Anabasis of Alexander, Volume I: Books The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian ca. Orations, Volume I: Orations and Olynthiacs Philippic 1. Philippic 2. On Halonnesus. On the Chersonese. Philippics 3 and 4. Answer to Philip's Letter. Philip's Letter. On Organization.

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On the Navy-boards. For the Liberty of the Rhodians. For the P. Pro Quinctio. Pro Roscio Amerino. Pro Roscio Comoedo. On the Agrarian Law. Jewish Antiquities, Volume I: Books Lysias c. Of a much larger number about thirty complete speeches by him survive. Fluent, simple, and graceful in style yet vivid in description, they suggest a passionate partisan who was also a gentle, humorous man. Sayings of Romans. Sayings of Spartans. The Ancient Customs of the Spartans.

Sayings of Spartan Women. Bravery of Women. On the Unchangeableness of God. On Husbandry. Concerning Noah's Work As a Planter. On Drunkenness. On Sobriety. Lives of the Abbots. Letter to Egbert. Histories: Books Annals: Books De Spectaculis. Minucius Felix: Octavius.

Tertullian c. Octavius by Minucius , an early Christian writer of unknown date, is a debate between belief and unbelief that depicts Roman religion and society. On Architecture , completed by Vitruvius sometime before 27 CE and the only work of its kind to survive antiquity, serves not professionals but readers who want to understand architecture. Topics include town planning, building materials, temples, the architectural orders, houses, pavements, mosaics, water supply, measurements, and machines.

Pro Milone. In Pisonem. Pro Scauro. Pro Fonteio. Pro Rabirio Postumo. Pro Marcello. Pro Ligario. Pro Rege Deiotaro. In Fasti , Ovid 43 BCE—17 CE sets forth explanations of the festivals and sacred rites that were noted on the Roman calendar, and relates in graphic detail the legends attached to specific dates.

The poem is an invaluable source of information about religious practices. De Vita Beata. De Otio. De Tranquillitate Animi. De Brevitate Vitae. De Consolatione ad Polybium. De Consolatione ad Helviam. Philostratus the Elder, Imagines. Philostratus the Younger, Imagines. Callistratus, Descriptions. Sixty-five descriptions, ostensibly of paintings in a gallery at Naples, are credited to an Elder Philostratus born c. Fourteen descriptions of statues in stone or bronze attributed to Callistratus were probably written in the fourth century CE. Dio Chrysostomus c.

What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE. The Greek poetry of the seventh to the fifth century BCE that we call elegy was composed primarily for banquets and convivial gatherings. Its subject matter consists of almost any topic, excluding only the scurrilous and obscene. The poetry of the seventh to the fifth centuries BCE that the Greeks called iambic seems connected with cult songs used in religious festivals, but its purpose is unclear.

The Little Carthaginian. The Rope. On the Confusion of Tongues. On the Migration of Abraham. Who Is the Heir of Divine Things? On Mating with the Preliminary Studies. The letters of Saint Jerome c. The Two Gallieni. The Thirty Pretenders. The Deified Claudius. The Deified Aurelian. Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. Carus, Carinus and Numerian. This is the first of two volumes giving a selection of Greek papyri relating to private and public business. Most were found in rubbish heaps or remains of ancient houses or in tombs in Egypt.

From such papyri we get much information about administration and social and economic conditions in Egypt, and about native Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Byzantine law, as well as glimpses of ordinary life. This volume contains: Agreements 71 examples ; these concern marriage, divorce, adoption, apprenticeship, sales, leases, employment of labourers.

Receipts Wills 6. Deed of disownment. Personal letters from men and women, young and old Memoranda 2. Invitations 5. Orders for payment 2. Agenda 2. Accounts and inventories Questions of oracles 3. Christian prayers 2. A Gnostic charm. Horoscopes 2. Letters, Volume IV: Letters On Greek Literature. The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus c. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines. On Flight and Finding. On the Change of Names. On Dreams. It also echoes poets, especially Virgil, and employs techniques traditional in Latin epic.

Library of History, Volume I: Books Books 1—5 and 11—20 survive complete, the rest in fragments. Greek papyri relating to private and public business in Egypt from before BCE to the eighth century CE inform us about administration; social and economic conditions in Egypt; Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine law. They also offer glimpses of ordinary life.

Elegies on Maecenas. Calpurnius Siculus. Laus Pisonis. Einsiedeln Eclogues. Duff, J. Wight Duff, Arnold M. Works such as those of the mime-writer Publilius Syrus , who flourished c. Athenian Constitution. Eudemian Ethics. Virtues and Vices. Gaius Valerius Flaccus flourished c. Valerius effectively rehandles the story already told by Apollonius Rhodius , recalls Virgilian language and thought, displays learning, and alludes to contemporary Rome. Metaphysics, Volume II: Books Magna Moralia.

On the Soul. Parva Naturalia. On Breath. In Secret History , the Byzantine historian Procopius late fifth century to after CE attacks the sixth century CE emperor Justinian and empress Theodora and alleges their ruinous effect on the Roman empire. Celsus , a layman, provides in On Medicine more information about the condition of medical science up to his own time probably first century CE than any other author.

Book 1 is on Greek schools of medicine and dietetics; Book 2 on prognosis, diagnosis, and general therapeutics; Book 3 on internal ailments; Book 4 on local bodily diseases. Epic Fragments. Quintus Ennius — , widely regarded as the father of Roman literature, was instrumental in creating a new Roman literary identity, domesticating the Greek forms of epic and drama, and pursuing a range of other literary and intellectual pursuits. He inspired major developments in Roman religion, social organization, and popular culture.

Extant works by Sidonius born c. Against Androtion. Against Aristocrates. Against Timocrates. Against Aristogeiton 1 and 2. Ammianus c. History of Rome, Volume X: Books The Passing of Peregrinus. The Runaways. Toxaris or Friendship. The Dance. The Mistaken Critic. The Parliament of the Gods. The Tyrannicide. Book 5 is on treatment by drugs of general diseases, Book 6 on treatment by drugs of local diseases. Greek Questions. Greek and Roman Parallel Stories. On the Fortune of the Romans.

On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander. Moralia, Volume V: Isis and Osiris. The E at Delphi. The Obsolescence of Oracles. Minor Works: On Colours. On Things Heard. On Plants. On Marvellous Things Heard. Mechanical Problems. On Indivisible Lines. The Situations and Names of Winds.

On Melissus, Xenophanes, Gorgias. Antiphon of Athens, born c. Of his fifteen extant works three concern real murder cases. The others are academic exercises. Andocides of Athens, born c. Of his four extant speeches, Against Alcibiades is doubtful. Against Physicists.

Against Ethicists. Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius , Caecilius , Livius Andronicus , Naevius , Pacuvius , Accius , Lucilius , and other anonymous authors; the Twelve Tables of Roman law; archaic inscriptions. Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought. Problems, Volume II: Books Rhetoric to Alexander.

Roman Antiquities, Volume I: Books Of the twenty books from the earliest times to BCE we have the first nine complete; most of 10 and 11; extracts; and an epitome of the whole. On the Decalogue. On the Special Laws, Books Moralia, Volume X: Love Stories. To an Uneducated Ruler. Precepts of Statecraft. On Monarchy, Democracy, and Oligarchy. That We Ought Not to Borrow. Parts of Animals.

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Movement of Animals. Progression of Animals. In Catilinam Pro Murena. Pro Sulla. Pro Flacco. On Interpretation. Prior Analytics. Three-Dollar Day. The Tale of a Traveling-Bag. The Twelve Tables. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Excerpta Valesiana. Greek mathematics from the sixth century BCE to the fourth century CE is represented by the work of, e. On Moral Virtue. On the Control of Anger. On Tranquility of Mind. On Brotherly Love. On Affection for Offspring. On the Special Laws, Book 4. On the Virtues. On Rewards and Punishments. In On Buildings , the Byzantine historian Procopius late fifth century to after CE describes the churches, public buildings, fortifications, and bridges Justinian erected throughout his empire, from the Church of St. Sophia in Constantinople to city walls at Carthage.

The work is richly informative about architecture of the sixth century CE. On the Orator: Book 3. On Fate. Stoic Paradoxes. Divisions of Oratory. Eight works or parts of works were ascribed to Manetho , a third century BCE Egyptian, all on history and religion and all apparently in Greek. In Neaeram. Fragments of ancient literature, from the seventh to the third century BCE, found on papyri in Egypt include examples of tragedy; satyr drama; Old, Middle, and New Comedy; mime; lyric, elegiac, iambic, and hexametric poetry. Columella first century CE included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture , but his personal experience was paramount.

Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy. Every Good Man is Free. On the Contemplative Life. On the Eternity of the World. Against Flaccus. Apology for the Jews. On Providence. Jewish Antiquities, Volume V: Books History of Alexander, Volume I: Books The first two of ten books have not survived and material is missing from books 5, 6, and Natural History, Volume V: Books Roman Antiquities, Volume V: Books Concerning the Team of Horses.

Against Callimachus. Against Lochites. Against Euthynus. Erotic Essay. On the Embassy to Gaius. General Indexes. Alciphron, Aelian, and Philostratus: The Letters. The fictitious, highly literary Letters of Alciphron second century CE are mostly to invented characters. The Letters of Farmers by Aelian c. The Erotic Epistles of Philostratus perhaps born c. Library of History, Volume V: Books On Invention. The Best Kind of Orator. Daily Round. Divinity of Christ. Origin of Sin. Fight for Mansoul. Against Symmachus 1. Prudentius born CE used allegory and classical Latin verse forms in service of Christianity.

Library of History, Volume X: Books Lycurgus was with Demosthenes in the anti-Macedonian faction. But Dinarchus favored an oligarchy under Macedonian control and Demades supported the Macedonian cause too. Against Symmachus 2. Crowns of Martyrdom. Scenes From History. On Sophistical Refutations. On Coming-to-be and Passing Away. On the Cosmos.

Alexandrian War. African War. Spanish War. African War and Spanish War are detailed accounts clearly by officers who had shared in the campaigns. The manuscript The desi Illuminated copies of the Book of Psalms were very popular in Byzantium. One group of illuminated psalters are known as What is special this script? In the Middle Ages, as today, calendars served to organise time into days and months.

This fragment collection contains A Horologion, or Book of Hours, contains the outline of the services aside from those relating to the Eucharist of the The oldest surviving copy of the History of the Britons Historia Brittonum is found in a miscellany of late Antique an This 13th-century world map, though only 8 centimetres across, is more than a simple diagram.