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The Soviet Union awarded him two Orders of Lenin and various medals. Fadeyev described the theme of this novel as one of a revolution significantly transforming the masses. The novel's protagonist, Levinson is a Bolshevik revolutionary who has a high level of political consciousness. The first years of the Soviet regime, from onwards, featured a proliferation of avant-garde literature groups. One of the most important was the Oberiu movement —s , which included the most famous Russian absurdist Daniil Kharms — , Konstantin Vaginov — , Alexander Vvedensky — and Nikolay Zabolotsky — Other famous authors experimenting with language included the novelists Yuri Olesha — and Andrei Platonov — and the short-story writers Isaak Babel — and Mikhail Zoshchenko — Two of its members also produced influential literary works, namely Viktor Shklovsky — , whose numerous books e.

Writers like those of the Serapion Brothers group — , who insisted on the right of an author to write independently of political ideology, were forced by authorities to reject their views and accept socialist realist principles. Some s writers, such as Mikhail Bulgakov — , author of The Master and Margarita written —, published , and Nobel Priz-winning Boris Pasternak — with his novel Doctor Zhivago written —, published continued the classical tradition of Russian literature with little or no hope of being published.

Their major works would not be published until the Khrushchev Thaw , and the Soviet authorities forced Pasternak to renounce his Nobel prize. The Khrushchev Thaw c. Poetry became a mass-cultural phenomenon: Bella Akhmadulina — , Robert Rozhdestvensky — , Andrei Voznesensky — , and Yevgeny Yevtushenko — , read their poems in stadiums and attracted huge crowds.

Some writers dared to oppose Soviet ideology, like short-story writer Varlam Shalamov — and Nobel Prize-winning novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn — , who wrote about life in the gulag camps, or Vasily Grossman — , with his description of World War II events countering the Soviet official historiography.

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Such writers, dubbed " dissidents ", could not publish their major works until the s. But the thaw did not last long.

In the s, some of the most prominent authors were not only banned from publishing but were also prosecuted for their anti-Soviet sentiments, or for parasitism. Solzhenitsyn was expelled from the country. Others, such as Nobel Prize—winning poet Joseph Brodsky — ; novelists Vasily Aksyonov — , Eduard Limonov — , Sasha Sokolov — and Vladimir Voinovich — ; and short-story writer Sergei Dovlatov — , had to emigrate to the West, while Oleg Grigoriev — and Venedikt Yerofeyev — "emigrated" to alcoholism.

Their books were not published officially until the perestroika period of the s, although fans continued to reprint them manually in a manner called " samizdat " self-publishing. Children's literature in Soviet Union counted as a major genre because of its educational role. Some of the early Soviet children's prose consisted of loose adaptations of foreign fairy-tales unknown in contemporary Russia.

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Alexey N. Tolstoy — wrote Buratino , a light-hearted and shortened adaptation of Carlo Collodi 's Pinocchio. Alexander Volkov — introduced fantasy fiction to Soviet children with his loose translation of L. While fairy tales were relatively free from ideological oppression, the realistic children's prose of the Stalin era was highly ideological and pursued the goal to raise children as patriots and communists. A notable writer in this vein was Arkady Gaydar — , himself a Red Army commander colonel in Russian Civil War : his stories and plays about Timur describe a team of young pioneer volunteers who help the elderly and resist hooligans.

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There was a genre of hero-pioneer story that bore some similarities with Christian genre of hagiography. In the times of Khrushchov First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from to and of Brezhnev in power — , however, the pressure lightened. In the s many of these books, as well as stories by foreign children's writers, were adapted into animation.

Soviet Science fiction , inspired by scientistic revolution, industrialisation, and the country's space pioneering , was flourishing, albeit in the limits allowed by censors. Wells and Jules Verne as examples to follow. Two notable exclusions from this trend were Yevgeny Zamyatin , author of dystopian novel We , and Mikhail Bulgakov , who, while using science fiction instrumentary in Heart of a Dog , The Fatal Eggs and Ivan Vasilyevich , was interested in social satire rather than scientistic progress.

The two have had problems with publishing their books in Soviet Union. Since the thaw in the s Soviet science fiction began to form its own style. Philosophy, ethics , utopian and dystopian ideas became its core, and Social science fiction was the most popular subgenre. Books of brothers Arkady and Boris Strugatsky , and Kir Bulychev , among others, are reminiscent of social problems and often include satire on contemporary Soviet society. Ivan Yefremov , on the contrary, arose to fame with his utopian views on future as well as on Ancient Greece in his historical novels. Strugatskies are also credited for the Soviet's first science fantasy , the Monday Begins on Saturday trilogy.

Space opera was less developed, since both state censors and serious writers watched it unfavorably. Nevertheless, there were moderately successful attempts to adapt space westerns to Soviet soil. A specific branch of both science fiction and children's books appeared in mid-Soviet era: the children's science fiction. It was meant to educate children while entertaining them. The star of the genre was Bulychov, who, along with his adult books, created children's space adventure series about Alisa Selezneva , a teenage girl from the future.

Mystery was another popular genre. Detectives by brothers Arkady and Georgy Vayner and spy novels by Yulian Semyonov were best-selling, [18] and many of them were adapted into film or TV in the s and s. Village prose is a genre that conveys nostalgic descriptions of rural life. Historical fiction in the early Soviet era included a large share of memoirs , fictionalized or not.

Valentin Katayev and Lev Kassil wrote semi-autobiographic books about children's life in Tsarist Russia. Vladimir Gilyarovsky wrote Moscow and Muscovites , about life in pre-revolutionary Moscow. Valentin Pikul wrote about many different epochs and countries in an Alexander Dumas -inspired style. In the s there appeared a relatively independent Village Prose , whose most prominent representatives were Viktor Astafyev and Valentin Rasputin. Any sort of fiction that dealt with the occult, either horror , adult-oriented fantasy or magic realism , was unwelcome in Soviet Russia.

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Until the s very few books in these genres were written, and even fewer were published, although earlier books, such as by Gogol, were not banned. Of the rare exceptions, Bulgakov in Master and Margarita not published in author's lifetime and Strugatskies in Monday Begins on Saturday introduced magic and mystical creatures into contemporary Soviet reality to satirize it. Another exception was early Soviet writer Alexander Grin , who wrote romantic tales, both realistic and fantastic. Aleksey Tolstoy.

Alexander Belayev. Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov. Boris Strugatsky. The end of the 20th century proved a difficult period for Russian literature, with relatively few distinct voices. Although the censorship was lifted and writers could now freely express their thoughts, the political and economic chaos of the s affected the book market and literature heavily. The book printing industry descended into crisis, the number of printed book copies dropped several times in comparison to Soviet era, and it took about a decade to revive.

Among the most discussed authors of this period were Victor Pelevin , who gained popularity with first short stories and then novels, novelist and playwright Vladimir Sorokin , and the poet Dmitry Prigov. A relatively new trend in Russian literature is that female short story writers Tatyana Tolstaya or Lyudmila Petrushevskaya , and novelists Lyudmila Ulitskaya or Dina Rubina have come into prominence. The tradition of the classic Russian novel continues with such authors as Mikhail Shishkin and Vasily Aksyonov.

Detective stories and thrillers have proven a very successful genre of new Russian literature: in the s serial detective novels by Alexandra Marinina , Polina Dashkova and Darya Dontsova were published in millions of copies. In the next decade Boris Akunin who wrote more sophisticated popular fiction, e. Science fiction was always well selling, albeit second to fantasy , that was relatively new to Russian readers. A good share of modern Russian science fiction and fantasy is written in Ukraine , especially in Kharkiv , [20] home to H.

Russian poetry of that period produced a number of avant-garde greats. The members of the Lianosovo group of poets, notably Genrikh Sapgir , Igor Kholin and Vsevolod Nekrasov, who previously chose to refrain from publication in Soviet periodicals, became very influential, especially in Moscow, and the same goes for another masterful experimental poet, Gennady Aigi.

Also popular were poets following some other poetic trends, e. In St. Petersburg, members of New Leningrad Poetry School that included not only the famous Joseph Brodsky but also Victor Krivulin, Sergey Stratanovsky and Elena Shvarts, were prominent first in the Soviet-times underground — and later in mainstream poetry.

Some other poets, e. Sergey Gandlevsky and Dmitry Vodennikov , gained popularity by writing in a retro style, which reflected the sliding of newly-written Russian poetry into being consciously imitative of the patterns and forms developed as early as in the 19th century. Mikhail Shishkin. In Imperial times the Russian aristocracy were so out of touch with the peasantry that Burns, translated into Russian , became a symbol for the ordinary Russian people.

A new translation of Burns, begun in by Samuil Marshak , proved enormously popular selling over , copies. Russian literature is not only written by Russians. Some renowned contemporary authors writing in Russian have been born and live in Ukraine Andrey Kurkov , H. Most Ukrainian fantasy and science fiction authors write in Russian, [26] which gives them access to a much broader audience, and usually publish their books via Russian publishers such as Eksmo , Azbuka and AST. Suffering, often as a means of redemption, is a recurrent theme in Russian literature.

Fyodor Dostoyevsky in particular is noted for exploring suffering in works such as Notes from Underground and Crime and Punishment. Christianity and Christian symbolism are also important themes, notably in the works of Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy and Chekhov. In the 20th century, suffering as a mechanism of evil was explored by authors such as Solzhenitsyn in The Gulag Archipelago.

Russian literature is devoted to the description of unsuccessful love affairs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about literature from Russia. For the literary magazine, see Soviet Literature magazine. Mythology and folklore. Mythology folklore. Public holidays. Music and performing arts. Television Cinema. World Heritage Sites. Flag Coat of arms Cultural icons. Architecture Art. Radio Television Cinema Censorship Propaganda. Alexander Sumarokov. Gavrila Derzhavin. Denis Fonvizin.

Alexander Radishchev. Nikolay Novikov. Nikolay Karamzin. Vasily Zhukovsky.

Russian literature

Alexander Griboyedov. Alexander Pushkin.


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Fyodor Tyutchev. Nikolai Gogol. Alexander Herzen. Ivan Goncharov. Mikhail Lermontov. Ivan Turgenev. Alexander Ostrovsky. Nikolai Leskov. Anton Chekhov. Boris Pasternak. Zinaida Gippius.

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Leonid Andreyev. Valery Bryusov. Andrey Bely. Alexander Blok. Vladimir Mayakovsky. Anna Akhmatova. Osip Mandelstam. Sergei Yesenin. Marina Tsvetaeva. Yevgeny Zamyatin. Mikhail Bulgakov. Vladimir Nabokov. Andrei Platonov. Nikolai Ostrovsky. Mikhail Sholokhov. Daniil Kharms. Varlam Shalamov. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. Vasily Aksyonov. Joseph Brodsky. Korney Chukovsky. Olga Bergholz.

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